Philosophy

In Fordham’s liberal arts tradition, philosophy has a special role in the development of the mature individual. Philosophy provides students the opportunity to reflect on the most fundamental questions that concern human beings and the ultimate dimensions of their world. The courses in philosophy acquaint students with the intellectual and moral traditions of their civilization and aim to develop in the student the skills necessary to think clearly and carefully for themselves—to question their assumptions and to judge their principles critically with the depth required for them to act as mature, integrated, free persons in their society and to provide it with enlightened, responsible leadership and service.

The major in philosophy is an excellent preparation for graduate school, for professional schools of law, medicine, education, and the ministry, as well as for positions in industry, government, and business in which a liberal arts degree is welcomed.

Early Admission to Master’s Program

Please read the Early Admission to Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Master’s Programs section of this Bulletin for more information. The policy on early admissions to the M.A. program in philosophy allows academically strong philosophy majors presently enrolled in FCRH, FCLC, and PCS to attain a master’s degree in philosophy in one year after graduating with a B.A. degree. Philosophy majors who have a cumulative 3.2 overall grade point average or above and at least a 3.5 in philosophy after five semesters of work in their college are eligible to apply for early admission to the M.A. program. After grades for the fall semester (junior year) have been posted and before registration for fall semester (senior year) begins, students who qualify will receive a description of the program and an invitation to apply from the chair or associate chair of the department.

There are several advantages from the undergraduate perspective in the early admissions policy. The GRE is waived, but becomes necessary if the student applies for the doctoral program. Courses on the graduate level begin before completing the B.A., enriching the undergraduate experience and serving to distinguish graduation transcripts. Students admitted early receive financial aid to a certain extent, since by double-counting three graduate courses, the M.A. total tuition bill is less than it would have been otherwise.

In the spring semester of junior year, students will be required to formally indicate the desire to matriculate in the accelerated M.A. program by filling out an online application (application fee waived) and submitting it to the Graduate Office of Admission along with two letters of recommendation. Applicants will be interviewed by the chair or associate chair for graduate studies. The application will be reviewed by the department’s Admissions Committee, which will make a recommendation regarding admission to the chair, and the department’s recommendation will be forwarded to the graduate school for final action.

Students admitted into the program will take three 5000-level graduate courses in their senior year. The graduate courses count toward both the completion of the B.A. degree and M.A. degree. Students will participate in the normal B.A. graduation ceremonies in May following their senior year. If seven graduate courses at the 5000-level or above are taken in the fifth year, the student will have a total of 10 graduate courses enabling completion of coursework for the M.A. in May of the fifth year. Students consult with the director of graduate studies to design a program of study for their senior year and for the fifth year. Students must fulfill the normal requirements for the M.A. degree.

Program Activities

The department sponsors an annual lecture series that brings distinguished philosophers from around the world to campus. The University has a chapter of Phi Sigma Tau, the national honor society in philosophy.

For more information

Visit the Philosophy department web page.

All freshmen take the core course PHIL 1000 PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE. The core course PHIL 3000 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS is taken by all students in sophomore or junior year. Selected sections of these two courses are designated EP1 and EP3, respectively. The department also offers Values Seminar/EP4 core courses as well as both American Pluralism and Global Studies courses, interdisciplinary capstone courses.

PHIL 1000. PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE. (3 Credits)

A philosophical reflection on the central metaphysical and epistemological questions surrounding human nature, which includes discussion of some or all of the following problems: the body/soul distinction and the mind/body problem; the problem of knowledge, (relativism, skepticism, the objectivity of knowledge, faith and reason); free will and determinism; and self and society (subjectivity, personhood, sociality, historicity and tradition). At least 60 percent of each section of the course is devoted to readings from Plato, Aristotle, Augustine or Aquinas, and Descartes. Each section includes some writings by at least one contemporary figure. Selected sections will be offered as Eloquentia Perfecta I seminars.

Attribute: FRPT.

PHIL 1003. LOST INTERLOCUTOR: PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN NATURE. (3 Credits)

This course examines the philosophical views of pre-Socratic thinkers, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Descartes, and Ignatius of Loyola and their connections to contemporary science, religion, and Jesuit education. We analyze primary texts, critique theories, compose philosophical arguments, and critically challenge the thinking of multiple perspectives. These skills comprise the greater philosophical tradition that stems from the ancients to us today. Salient themes of our lives – knowledge, understanding, truth, falsity, doubt, goodness, mortality, reality, evidence, belief, love – stir fundamental questions that need systematic investigation in order to make sense of our human nature and give greater purpose to life. Since this Manresa course satisfies the FCRH Freshman Eloquentia Perfecta I requirement, it stresses critical spoken dialogue and writing-intensive assignments. It also consists of interactive (and fun) out-of-class learning experiences, and the professor even feeds you at most of these.

Attributes: EP1, FRPT, MANR, PHFR.

PHIL 1010. INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING. (3 Credits)

The course is intended to sharpen a student's ability to think clearly, consistently, critically, and creatively. The course objective considers principles of sound judgment and helps students learn how to recognize and analyze arguments present in ordinary spoken and written language, how to distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning, and how to construct valid, sound arguments.

PHIL 1999. SERVICE LEARNING-1000 LEVEL. (1 Credit)

In this student-initiated program, the student may earn one additional credit by connecting a service experience to a course with the approval of the professor and the service-learning director.

PHIL 2999. TUTORIAL. (2 Credits)

Independent research and reading with supervision from a faculty member.

PHIL 3000. PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS. (3 Credits)

This course involves philosophical reflection on the major normative ethical theories underlying moral decision making in our everyday lives. The principal focus of the course is a systematic introduction to the main normative ethical theories, i.e., eudaimonism, natural law ethics, deontological ethics, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, and feminism. The differences amoung these approaches are illuminated by studying various moral issues. In each section of the course, at least half the readings will be selected from Aristotle and Kant. Each section will include writings by at least one contemporary figure.

Attribute: PETH.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or PHIL 1001 or PHIL 1002 or PHIL 1003 or HPRH 1002.

PHIL 3109. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

This senior values seminar surveys major theories in environmental ethics dealing with our moral duties regarding nature: for example, environmental stewardship, sustainable development, environmental justice, ecological virtue ethics, animal rights, biocentrism, Leopold's land ethic, and ecological feminism. It has not only philosophical but also scientific, economic, political, and design dimensions as it deals with such topics as global warming, alternative energy, pollution control, suburban sprawl, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and the prospect of a sixth mass species extinction event threatening the future of human and nonhuman life as we know it. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: ENST, ENVS, PJST, SRVL, URST.

PHIL 3115. PARADOXES IN VALUE AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3130. PHILOSOPHY OF LAW. (4 Credits)

The nature and philosophical foundations of law. Relations of justice and morality, civil and moral law, and their respective rights and obligations. Types and conceptions of law; natural law, legal realism, legal positivism. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3131. PHILOSOPHY OF ECONOMICS. (4 Credits)

Economics grew out of philosophy, carrying forward key philosophical ideas that continue to operate as grounding assumptions, goals, and regulatory ideals in the discipline. Some of these philosophical ideas have been challenged on the grounds of realism, coherence, usefulness, consequences, and compatibility with important values like justice, fairness, human dignity, democracy, liberty, equality, and the general welfare. Philosophy of Economics analyzes, criticizes, and creatively rethinks both classical and contemporary texts that deploy and challenge the philosophical ideas that continue to guide economics as a discipline that has great influence in framing and rationalizing public policy. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3195. POLITICAL LIBERTARIANS AND CRITICS. (4 Credits)

An exposition and critique of political libertarianism - a philosophical theory developed by Ayn Rand, Hayek, Friedman, Nozick, Naveson and others - that has come to dominate neoconservative political thought in the U.S. We will read major libertarian texts and criticisms by David Gauthier, Hazlett, Rawls, Singer, and other defenders of public goods. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: PJST.

PHIL 3200. INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC. (4 Credits)

A study of the methods and principles that distinguish correct argumentation. Attention is given both to the nature of argument and to its applications. Topics discussed include induction, deduction (including symbolic notation) and the common fallacies. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3204. SYMBOLIC LOGIC. (4 Credits)

Humans are capable of altering their behavior, verbal and otherwise, in light of deductive consequences and in conformity with standards of logical consistency. Although Aristotle, the Stoics, and others developed formal techniques for the evaluation of logical consequence and consistency, the early 20th Century witnessed an unprecedented expansion in the scope and power of those techniques through the construction of formal languages based on mathematical principles. Students consider the modern development of formal logical techniques including propositional logic, first-order logic, and if time permits, a system of intentional logic (e.g. modal logic), and then explore some of the philosophical issues surrounding them. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3235. THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE. (4 Credits)

Analysis and study of the central issues in epistemology; illusion and reality, sense perception, and reason; extent, validity and limitations of human knowledge. Classical and contemporary texts. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3243. PHILOSOPHY OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE. (4 Credits)

Unlike inanimate objects such as rocks, we are aware of the world around us. Energy from the sun heats both the rock and you, but unlike the rock you also feel the heat, you know that it comes from the sun, you can understand what it is, and can think about it even when it is absent. How exactly are we able to do this? What makes us capable of thinking, feeling, and perceiving? Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary attempt to answer questions like these. This course explores some of the dominant research programs in cognitive science with an eye to understanding and critically evaluating the philosophical assumptions on which they depend. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3253. RELATIVISM AND PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course analyzes and evaluates various forms of contemporary relativism: epistemological, ontological, and moral. It also investigates whether human rationality is so diverse as to be relativistic in nature. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3254. PHILOSOPHY OF PERCEPTION. (4 Credits)

This course examines a selection from the many contemporary philosophical debates about our perceptual awareness of the external world. The course involves issues in epistemology (e.g. what is perceptual information?), philosophy of mind (e.g. representationalism, perceptual content), neuroscience (e.g. how does the visual system work?), and metaphysics (e.g. color theory). Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3257. SKEPTICISM. (4 Credits)

Skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, and in particular about our knowledge of the external world, has a long history, from Sextus Empiricus to Hume and Berkeley up to a wide array of present-day debates. As it is plausible that epistemological theory emerges from a dialectic with skepticism, analysis of skeptical arguments gives substance to our claims to have achieved knowledge. This course examines many of these arguments, historical and contemporary. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3266. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. (4 Credits)

Critical appreciation of the relation of the physical and social sciences to philosophy. The course takes a historical and systematic approach, dealing with the methods and theories of science from the 17th to the 20th century from a philosophical perspective. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 3301. PROBLEM OF GOD. (4 Credits)

A systematic study of the existence of God, of His nature, of His relation to the world. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: REST.

PHIL 3306. FAITH AFTER THE DEATH OF GOD. (4 Credits)

Can belief in God be justified, or are there compelling reasons to suspend judgment or to believe that there is no God? This course will debate the rationality of faith after death of God and the rise of atheism in modernity. The course will investigate whether it is rational to believe in God and what would be the epistemological foundations necessary for beliefs about the existence of God or about the nature of God. Students will examine proofs for the existence of God from classic sources, e.g., Aristotle, Neo-Platonism, Augustine, Aquinas, and rationalism, as well as from defenders of skepticism and atheism. Students will read major authors on these questions, both classic and contemporary, such as Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, Aquinas, Plantinga, Feser, Eliade.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or HPLC 1001 or HPRH 1002.

PHIL 3307. FAITH AND RATIONALITY. (4 Credits)

The course will focus on the rationality of belief in God. What is required for belief in God to be rational? Are there any proofs that God exists? Does the fact of evil in the world prove that God does not exist? What role does religious experience play in the justification of religious belief? Emphasis on contemporary authors. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: REST.

PHIL 3310. ISSUES IN PHILOSOPHY OF LAW. (4 Credits)

This course will examine and critically evaluate different accounts of the nature of law; the relationship between law and morality; the rule of law and constitutional government; judicial review and interpretation; foundations of private law; the foundations of public law. These and related issues in the philosophy of law shall be discussed and illustrated by reference to specific legal cases and controversies. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3330. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. (4 Credits)

The course will focus on issues in the philosophy of religion from the view point of the divine attributes. Traditional proofs for God's existence, forms of evidentialism and anti-evidentialism, and dilemmas concerning divine simplicity, foreknowledge, as well as the problem of evil, will be treated. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: REST.

PHIL 3348. CONCEPTS AND REALITY. (4 Credits)

In the Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant raised the question of how concepts relate to reality. This course will examine 20th and 21st century attempts to answer Kant’s question. Topics discussed may include (1) the nature of concepts, (2) varieties of conceptual schemes, (3) the distinction between descriptive and revisionary metaphysics, and (4) intentionality; authors discussed may include Robert Brandom, John McDowell, Peter Strawson, and Wilfrid Sellars. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3350. PROBLEMS IN METAPHYSICS. (4 Credits)

Nature and methods of metaphysics, our knowledge of being, self-identity and process, the unity and interrelationship of beings, action as unifying principle, causal explanation. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: REST.

PHIL 3354. PROBLEM OF EVIL. (4 Credits)

"Do bad things that happen prove that there is no God? This course shall focus on this question and consider what has been said about it form ancient times right up to what people are saying about it today. We shall pay attention to what has been argued for and against the existance of God given that there is much that is bad in our world. We shall try also to evaluate what a number of philosphers have said about this fact." Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: AMCS.

PHIL 3355. METAPHYSICS. (4 Credits)

This course introduces students to major metaphysical questions and problems, such as free will and determinism, persistence through time, necessity and identity, possible worlds, universals and particulars, change, substance, causation, realism vs. anti-realism, and the prospects of immortality. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3360. CONTEMPORARY METAPHYSICS. (4 Credits)

An examination of some issues in metaphysics, with an emphasis on 20th and 21st century texts and figures. Topics may include universals and particulars, space and time, constitution, identity and persistence, free will, necessity and possibility, the mind-body problem and causation. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3412. PHILOSOPHY OF EMOTIONS. (4 Credits)

Through class discussions, lectures and readings, this course aims, in phenomenological fashion, to analyze human emotions as lived conscious experiences. Stress is placed on the central importance of emotions in human life. The realm of feeling is related to physical and mental health; to knowing and willing; to art, morality and religion. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3422. HARRY POTTER AND PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course will use the Harry Potter novels to explore several central themes in philosophy, and will use philosophical analysis to interpret the books and their cultural impact. Some central topics of the course will include: the nature and relationships of minds, souls, and bodies; the conflict of good and evil and some related issues in moral psychology and the ethics of ‘love’; metaphysical implications of the magical world of HP and its enchantment of muggles. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: AMST.

PHIL 3501. ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course aims to acquaint the student with the basic problems and directions of Western philosophy as developed in its early and decisive phase by the principal thinkers of ancient Greece, Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus are among the figures that can be treated, as well as Stoicism and Epicureanism. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: CLAS, OCST, REST.

PHIL 3502. PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: CLAS.

PHIL 3504. STOICS AND SKEPTICS. (4 Credits)

This course is an examination of philosophy during the extraordinarily dynamic era that began after Alexander the Great had spread Hellenistic ideals throughout the ancient world. The course will enter into the debates among the five major schools of Hellenistic philosophy - Stoicism, Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism and Neo-Platonism. Students will read representative authors from each school, but since philosophy was regarded as a way of life during this period, students will read authors from many walks of life, such as the Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius, the statesman, Cicero and the Poet, Virgil. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: CLAS.

PHIL 3520. PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE. (4 Credits)

Perhaps no philosopher in the history of the world has been as influential in as many ways as Aristotle. A paragon of insight, systematicity, and rigor, he has inspired philosophers for over two thousand years. He remains an icon of Western intellectual culture, and his influence can be discerned even now in fields as diverse as history, theology, rhetoric, theatre, psychology, metaphysics, biology, law, political theory, ethics, and logic. This course introduces students to key features of his philosophical framework. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: CLAS.

PHIL 3525. PHILOSOPHY OF PLATO. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: CLAS.

PHIL 3526. PLATO: THE UNREAD DIALOGUES. (4 Credits)

Although Plato wrote at least 28 dialogues, his philosophy is usually taught from only a few, such as the Apology, Meno, Phaedo, and Republic. This course examines his philosophy as expounded in the many dialogues seldom read in undergraduate courses. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: CLAS.

PHIL 3530. PHILOSOPHY AFTER CONSTANTINE. (4 Credits)

This course will discuss some of the various ways in which the Christian East was influenced by and employed ancient philosophy in order to grapple with central philosophical questions such as the nature of the soul, its relation to the body, human freedom and choice, fate and providence, the pursuit of virtues and vices, the role of reason and of beauty, and the divine energies. Thinkers discussed may include Gregory of Nyssa, Nemesius of Emesa, Maximus the Confessor, and John of Damascus. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3552. MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

The origins of medieval philosophy. The Carolingian renaissance. Anselm. Abelard and 12th-century humanism. Philosophical currents of the 13th century; introduction of Aristotle into the University of Paris; the reaction of the Augustinian philosophers to Aristotle; Bonaventure, Aquinas and Siger of Brabant. Duns Scotus. William of Ockham and the rise of nominalism. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: MVST, OCST.

PHIL 3557. CONFESSIONS OF AUGUSTINE. (4 Credits)

A study of St. Augustine's most popular philosophical work, The Confessions. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: CLAS, MVST, OCST, REST.

PHIL 3559. DANTE AND PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

By examination of the Divine Comedy and other works by Dante, this course will consider such important philosophical themes and divine providence, free choice of the will, the sources of ethics, and the nature of happiness. The course will involve study of various ancient and medieval thinkers whom Dante used to explore the perennial questions of human existence. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or HPRH 1002 or HPRH 1051.

PHIL 3560. PHILOSOPHY OF AQUINAS. (4 Credits)

Historical setting, doctrinal influences, themes of knowledge and the meaning of person; metaphysics and God; freedom and ethics; and reason and revelation. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3565. FOUR MEDIEVAL THINKERS. (4 Credits)

This course introduces the thought of Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas and Buridan, and its influence on the development of medieval philosophy, especially in the philosophy of mind and natural theology Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: REST.

PHIL 3591. MEDIEVAL POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

An investigation of the major political theories of the Middle Ages from the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West until the eve of the Protestant Reformation. Students will read the classic texts of this era from Augustine's "City of God" to Masilius of Padua's "The Defender of Peace." Special attention will be given to different theories of kingship and of the basis of political authority and the relationship between papacy and empire. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: MVST, OCST, PJST.

PHIL 3600. DESCARTES AND THE RATIONALISTS. (4 Credits)

The course considers the great rationalist systems of philosophy on the continent in the pre-Kantian period. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3601. MODERN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A history of philosophy from Descartes to contemporary times, including Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel and others. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3604. RATIONALISTS AND EMPIRICISTS EPISTEMOLOGIES. (4 Credits)

This course will address the epistemological problems stemming from Descartes’ “methodological skepticism” and their proposed solutions in early modern philosophy ranging from Descartes through British Empiricism to the rationalism of Kant. The course will also trace the conceptual roots of the problems of modern epistemologies in late-medieval philosophy, and seek their resolutions for contemporary philosophy through this historical analysis. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3609. MODERNITY AND ITS CRITICS. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3620. IMMANUEL KANT. (4 Credits)

A study of Kant's philosophy concentrating on the Critique of Pure Reason. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3623. MARX AS A PHILOSOPHER. (4 Credits)

Karl Marx is more commonly approached as an economist, sociologist, or political theorist than as a philosopher. But this class will explore the original philosophical positions offered by Marx as well as the philosophical basis and results of his often polemical exchanges with others. Topics include Marx’s philosophy of history, philosophical anthropology, materialist critique of idealism, as well as his normative social and political philosophy. We will also discuss Marx’s theory of revolution and his stance on the limits of philosophy itself. The goal is to develop the possible internal consistency, social applicability, and limits of Marx’s philosophy. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3631. 19TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Study of post-Kantian developments in philosophy. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3643. HEIDEGGER: BEING AND TIME. (4 Credits)

A course on Martin Heidegger's Being and Time, one of the most important philosophical works of the twentieth century. Readings in addition to noteworthy commentary will include some of the political controversies associated with Heidegger's thought. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3652. CONTEMPORARY FRENCH PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course introduces the work of French thinkers from the 20th and 21st centuries. Themes under consideration might be subjectivity, violence, justice, embodiment, and epistemology. Figures covered may include Badiou, Deleuze, Derrida, Foucault, Irigaray, Kofman, Le Doeuff, Lyotard, Merleau-Ponty, and Ranciere. Reference may also be made to recent developments of French theory in the Anglo-American context, including in feminist theory and social and political philosophy. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

PHIL 3653. LATIN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course will introduce students to select texts in Latin American and Caribbean Philosophy. Central themes will include the (persistent) effects of the colonial period, the inheritance of various European philosophies, and the possibility of a distinctive Latin American Philosophy. Currents and thinkers may include Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Simon Bolivar’s influence, Leopoldo Zea and Positivism, the Negritude Movement in Martinique, Liberation theology and philosophy, and Latina/o Thought in North. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: COLI, LALS, PJST.

PHIL 3655. PHILOSOPHY AND LANGUAGE. (4 Credits)

Early in the 20th Century, philosophy took what has been called "the linguistic turn." While continental structuralists and post-structuralists developed theories according to which all concepts are interpretative, in analytic philosophy, positivists tried to reduce many key questions of metaphysics and epistemology to issues of usage. This course will survey major contemporary theories of sense, reference, and meaning that have developed since the mid-20th century, explaining their methodological implications for the analysis of other philosophical topics. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

PHIL 3661. HUSSERL AND HEIDEGGER. (4 Credits)

This course investigates the nature, methods, and development of phenomenology through a study of its two major, German thinkers. The course will compare and contrast the views of Husserl and Heidegger on (1) the concept and method of Phenomenology; (2) intentionality; and (3) subjectivity. It will also illustrate the differences between the two by examining their failed collaboration on the Encyclopedia Britannica entry for phenomenology. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3667. PHILOSOPHY OF SPACE AND TIME. (4 Credits)

Space and time are fundamental features of the physical universe in which we live, and are essential to our consciousness of the world. Philosophers from Augustine to Leibniz and Kant have asked what time is, whether it is a real feature of the causal order of nature or rather imposed by our conscious experience. Developments in 20th century physics and philosophy have forced us to rethink the relation of space and time, reconsider whether the future might be as real as the past, and whether time really "moves" forward. The course will explore the leading contemporary theories and draw connections with developments in science. No advanced background in physics is required. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3670. EXISTENTIALISM. (4 Credits)

A survey of themes in the main 19th and 20th century existentialist writers, such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

PHIL 3671. PHENOMENOLOGY AND EXISTENTIALISM. (4 Credits)

An investigation of themes central to the development of phenomenology and existentialism. Themes to be studies might include methodology, intentionality and consciousness, subjectivity, anxiety or dread, embodiment, emotions, the Other, authenticity, freedom, agency and action, history and historicity, the individual versus community, social and political responsibilty. Readings will be drawn from Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Soren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3672. CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. (4 Credits)

An introduction to contemporary philosophy of religion from a Continental perspective, considering issues of religious experience, the manifestation (or "truth") of faith, and/or a philosophical analysis of religious practices. The course may include texts from thinkers such as Paul Ricoeur, Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Jean-Louis Chrétien, Jean-Yves Lacoste or John D. Caputo. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or HPRH 1002 or HPRH 1051.

PHIL 3673. EXISTENTIALISM AND LITERATURE. (4 Credits)

Existentialism and Literature seeks to examine how the ideas of existentialist philosophy--in such thinkers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Marcel, Sartre, Camus, Blanchot and Merleau-Ponty--are expressed in and through literature. Alongside philosophical writings, we will read literary works by such writers as Dostoevsky, Rilke, Kafka, Sartre, de Beauvoir, and Camus. Themes include the nature and structure of the self; authenticity and inauthenticity; alienation and the fear of death; meaning and meaninglessness, and the existence or absence of God. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3711. HUMANITARIANISM AND PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: INST, PJST.

PHIL 3712. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT AND JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Ethical principles of sustainability and an "endowment model" of intergenerational justice applied to the world's largest-scale environmental problems, such as usable land and food yields, fresh water supplies, loss of rainforests and biodiversity, clean air and global warming, fossil fuels and alternative energies, and population growth and poverty. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: ENST, GLBL, INST.

PHIL 3713. HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

This interdisciplinary class will focus on the development of the human rights paradigm in international law and philosophical questions about how we can justify universal basic rights. For example, are universal rights consistant with a wide array of varying cultures and ways of life? Are concepts of rights somehow inherently "western" or "individualist", and can relativist doubts about human rights be answered? We will also look at some debates about the content of such rights, e.g. rights to educational opportunity, to welfare or subsistence, to basic health care, to membership in a culture, to immigration, to a sustained environment and other controversial cases. We will also consider humnitarian intervention in the name of rights, problems with the UN system, and ways that the international order could be restructured if we take seriously the idea that there are universal basic rights to freedom from tyranny and to development out of poverty. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 3714. KANT AND HEGEL. (4 Credits)

This course will examine the relationship between the philosophical writings of Immanuel Kant and G.W.F Hegel. Kant's philosophy was understood by many of his contemporaries primarily as a philosophy of freedom, and in the first part of this course we will attempt to understand the pivotal role that the relationship between nature and freedom plays in both Kant's theoretical and moral writings. During the second part of the course, we will examine both Hegel's criticisms of Kant's philosophy and the ways in which Hegel's philosophy, neverthless, attempts to develop particular Kantian insights. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Prerequisites: (PHIL 1000 and PHIL 3000).

PHIL 3715. KANT ON MORALITY AND RELIGION. (4 Credits)

In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant developed a theory of autonomy that revolutionized moral and religious thought. This course will examine Kant’s moral philosophy and philosophy of religion in writings like the Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Pure Reason, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Metaphysics of Morals, and Religion within the Boundaries of mere Reason. Topics discussed may include (1) Kant's categorical imperative, (2) Kant's theory of human autonomy, (3) Kant's concept of God, (4) Kant's theory of moral belief in God and immorality, (5) Kant's treatment of the problem of evil, and (6) Kant's view of the relationship between morality and revealed religion. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 3720. AFRICAN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Using texts by Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, W.E.B. DuBois, Alain Locke, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, James H. Cone, Angela Davis, Cornel West, Patricia Hill Collins, Howard McGary, William E Lawson, Leonard Harris, Lucius Outlaw and others, this course will focus on pillars, prophets and prospects for African American philosophy, a 'philosophy born of struggle' created by profound critical and transformative voices from times of chattel slavery to the present that plays an influential role in American philosophy and American society today. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, COLI, PJST, PLUR, WGSS.

PHIL 3722. NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This seminar-style course will explore the philosophical contributions of Native Americans (also known as American Indians, and best known by the names these diverse people have given themselves), including insights about how to preserve our biotic community and to live with one another amidst our American pluralism in ways that are spiritually satisfying. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, COLI, ENST, PJST, PLUR.

PHIL 3731. PHILOSOPHY OF THE CITY. (4 Credits)

This course interweaves philosophical reflections on the nature and need of cities, from ancient times to the present, with classical and contemporary works on: urban planning theory and practice, sociology, economics; and political science: Readings will include Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities; Sharon M. Meagher, ed., Philosophy and the City; Classic to Contemporary Writings, Richard T. LeGates and Frederic Stout, ed., The City Reader (Sixth Edition); and Margaret Kohn, The Death and Life of the Urban Commonwealth.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or HPRH 1002 or HPRH 1051.

PHIL 3756. CHINESE PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A study of the philosophical traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism (including Ch'an, which spread to Japan as Zen) with special attention to the tension between ethico-political and mystical-religious dimensions of these traditions. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: GLBL.

PHIL 3759. BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

The course is a historically-based introduction to Buddhist philosophy that gives students a basic understanding of the central ideas, issues and approaches in the various Buddhist traditions. Students will be encouraged to bring Buddhist philosophy into dialogue with some Western philosophical perspectives. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: GLBL, INST, REST.

PHIL 3770. DAOIST AND ZEN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

An examination of the classic Chinese texts of philosophical Daoism (Daodejing and Zhuangzi) and the related schools of Chinese Chan and Japanese Zen Buddhism. We will balance discussion of these traditions in their original Asian context with assessment of their relevance for contemporary issues such as personal well-being and environmental ethics.

Attribute: GLBL.

Prerequisites: PHIL 1000 or HPRH 1002 or HPRH 1051.

PHIL 3800. INTERNSHIP. (3 Credits)

PHIL 3810. DEMOCRATIC THEORY. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3815. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

This course explores various conceptions of justice on both national and international levels, from the perspective of contemporary political philosophy. Topics include distributive justice, the politics of recognition, reparations for past injustices, the process of transition from unjust to just regime, global justice, and environmental justice. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3850. HERMENEUTICS. (4 Credits)

Hermeneutics is the philosophical theory and practice of interpretation. The course will focus especially on Hans-Georg Gadamer’s and Paul Ricoeur’s philosophical approaches to understand and interpreting texts and experiences in the realms of art, history, religion, literature (especially narrative), formation of the self, politics and justice. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

Prerequisite: PHIL 1000.

PHIL 3865. CRITICAL THEORY FRANKFURT SCHOOL. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3901. PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES OF FEMINISM. (4 Credits)

Philosophical exploration of issues raised by historical and contemporary reflection on the relationship between the sexes. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: PJST.

PHIL 3903. PHILOSOPHY AND FEMINIST THEORY. (4 Credits)

A philosophical exploration of issues raised by historical and contemporary reflection on the relationship between the sexes. In this course, we will explore how the tradition of philosophy has responded to gender and account for the struggles to bring feminist discourse to philosophical theory. We will examine the connections between Marxist, post-modern, existentialist and phenomenological theories to the issues of women and gender-identity politics. Counts for Women's Studies. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

PHIL 3904. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A survey of feminist philosophy, focusing on its contributions to social and political philosophy. Balances historical and issue-based approaches, surveying feminist contributions to philosophical accounts of rights, equality, and personhood, as well as power and oppression, liberation and resistance, subjectivity and sociality. Figures studied may include Mary Wollstonecraft, Simone de Beauvoir, Shulamith Firestone, Gayle Rubin, bell hooks, Catharine MacKinnon, Marilyn Frye, Nancy Fraser, Sandra Bartky, Iris Marion Young, Audre Lorde, Patricia Hill Collins, Monique Wittig, Judith Butler, Sally Haslanger, and Martha Nussbaum. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: PJST, WGSS.

PHIL 3906. EMOTIONS AND THE GOOD LIFE. (4 Credits)

Whereas Oscar Wilde thought "The advantage of the emotions is that they lead us astray," Francis Bacon thought the emotions were essential to our experiencing the world as we do: "For a crowd is not company; and faces are but a gallery of pictures; and talk but a thinking cymbal, where there is no love." George Santayana thought our humanity diminished without a proper emotional life: "The young man who has not wept is a savage, and the old man who will not laugh is a fool." This course will investigate the nature of the emotions, their relation to cognition, and the role they play in the good life for humans. Readings will be drawn from authors as diverse as Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, William James, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Nancy Sherman. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3907. EXISTENTIALIST FEMINISM. (4 Credits)

Existential Feminism includes the classical existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre in dialogical exchange with the feminist thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Philosophies like Nietzsche, Heidegger, Bataille, Merleau-Ponty, Marcuse, Foucault, and Bourdieu (via the sociology of Michel de Certeau), in addition to Lacanian psychoanalytic theory can illuminate thinkers like Luce Irigaray but also, and in another context, the writings of authors like Elfriede Jelinek and the political thinker, Hannah Arendt. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3908. PHILOSOPHY OF HAPPINESS. (4 Credits)

The class examines the major theories of happiness in the Western philosophical tradition. Attention will also be given to some religious traditions, Asian philosophies, and contemporary discussions of happiness in philosophy and psychology. Throughout there will be consideration of the relationship between happiness and morality. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3910. SHAKESPEARE AND AQUINAS. (4 Credits)

A philosophical study of human emotions by reading "in tandem" certain plays of Shakespeare and the treatises by Thomas Aquinas on the passions and on human nature in general. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: MVST.

PHIL 3920. EVIL CHOICES. (4 Credits)

What makes a bad choice evil? And what motivates somebody to do evil? Are only morally depraved persons capable of making evil choices? Or can an evil choice be made by someone who might be considered good or even admirable under other circumstances? Is it possible to choose evil for evil’s sake? Or is every evil choice motivated by a desire to obtain some good, for oneself or for others? This course explores these questions with the help of great philosophers throughout history. We consider ancient accounts of evildoing (Plato and Aristotle), medieval views on Lucifer (Augustine, Anselm, and Aquinas), modern approaches to radical evil (Kant), and contemporary reflections on the Holocaust. We will also read some contemporary psychological research. Our goal is not only to better understand evil, but also to shed some light on human nature and our capacity to choose good in the face of evil. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Prerequisite: PHIL 3000.

PHIL 3930. PHILOSOPHY AND LITERATURE. (4 Credits)

Philosophy and Literature is devoted to the study of philosophical theories of literature, including studies of literary and poetic language, of the relationship between literary and other kinds of knowledge, of the philosophical meaning of literary works, and of questions regarding the status of the author and reader in the work of literature. The course covers readings from the history of philosophy and from recent philosophical and literary sources. Philosophers and authors studied include Plato, Aristotle, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Iser,Blanchot, Bachelard, Sartre, Nehamas, and de Bolla, as well as literary works by Rilke, Proust, Moravia, and writers of Holocaust literature. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: COLI, OCST.

PHIL 3935. ETHICS AND MENTAL HEALTH. (4 Credits)

This course focuses on concepts central to our understanding of mental health, ways in which those concepts impact categorization and treatment of mental disorder, and ethical issues that arise in mental health care contexts as well as concerning mental health in wider social contexts.

Prerequisite: PHIL 3000.

PHIL 3945. PHILOSOPHY AND ART. (4 Credits)

Philosophy and Art is a course in philosophical aesthetics for upper-level students with interests both in philosophy and in the various artistic and literary disciplines. Starting from a historical survey of discussions of art, we consider issues such as mimesis and representation, the ontological and epistemological value of art, the structure of artistic experience, and the status of the artist as the origin of the work of art. Readings include selections from Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Freud, Dewey, Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger, Danto, Foucault and de Bolla, and are presented in conjunction with studied attention to works of visual art as well as works in other media. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: COLI.

PHIL 3970. HUMANITY'S VALUE. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

Prerequisite: PHIL 3000.

PHIL 3975. PHILOSOPHY AS A WAY OF LIFE. (4 Credits)

This course considers the role of philosophy in a happy life. Is a philosophical reflection necessary for a life worth living? Special attention will be given to the ancient Greek conception of philosophy as a way of life, especially in the writings of Plato and the Stoics, but modern understandings of philosophy will be considered as well. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3978. PHILOSOPHY AND DIGITAL MEDIA. (4 Credits)

Participants in this course will examine the classic distinction, beginning with Plato, between orality and literacy, with an overview of the signal changes in mass reproduction from books to lithographs, photographs, film, and audio recording to today’s digital, online and cell-phone mediated culture, including texting and the Twitter and Instagram suffusion of everyday life, old new media like faxes and email, not to mention the ever changing varieties of social media, blogs, feeds, etc. To explore the changes wrought by the various technological means of ‘reproduction,’ ‘communication,’ and ‘representation,’ on human life and expression, authors to read include Walter Benjamin and Martin Heidegger as well as Theodor Adorno, in addition to McLuhan, Anders, Kittler, Baudrillard, and a bunch of ever changing new names. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Prerequisite: PHIL 1000.

PHIL 3979. PHILOSOPHY AND MEDIA. (4 Credits)

Philosophy has been concerned with media since Plato’s Phaedo. Beginning with a discussion of orality and literacy and moving to explore so-called “new media,” including cell phone accessibility and its texting culture to the Twitter and Instagram suffusion of everyday life, faxes/email, Facebook, YouTube, etc. Participants will also review the signal change in the 19th C. from traditional print forms to photography, films, and recording. Examining the change wrought by technological means of reproduction on human life and expression. Possible authors include Benjamin, Adomo, Illich, de Certeau, Anders, Kittler, Attali, Baudrillard, Vinilio, and Laruelle. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 3980. CONTEMPORARY INSSUES IN METAETHICS. (4 Credits)

Metaethics steps back from moral debates to ask metaphysical, epistemological, and semantic questions about morality itself. The metaphysical questions seek to understand the nature of morality, asking questions such as: are there objective moral facts, or is morality culturally determined? If there are objective moral facts, are they like scientific facts? The epistemological questions seek to understand how we can know or be justified in believing moral claims. The semantic questions seek to understand what we mean when we use moral terms: are we making truth claims or are we just expressing our feelings? In this course, we will explore contemporary answers to these kinds of questions. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 3990. ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS AND ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Survey of environmental philosophy worldviews and ethics such as the universe story, deep ecology, the land ethic, zoocentrism, biocentrism, ecofeminism, ecotheology, utilitarian economics, environmental pragmatism, ecological virtue ethics, and environmental justice. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, ENST, ENVS, PJST.

PHIL 3999. TUTORIAL. (3 Credits)

Independent research and reading with supervision from a faculty member.

PHIL 4001. POLITICS AND BIOPOWER. (4 Credits)

This course will examine the recent trend in Continental Philosophy that makes central the concept of life in understanding contemporary politics. The primary focus will be on the work of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben, with readings also by Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, Judith Butler, and others. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 4044. MODERN ETHICAL THEORIES. (4 Credits)

This course is an introductory survey of major theories and themes in twentieth-century moral philosophy. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: BIOE.

PHIL 4205. SEMINAR: JUSTICE AND SOCIAL IDENTITY. (4 Credits)

This senior values seminar examines the multicultural environment of today's Western democracies which demands group recognition that challenges prevailing conceptions of justice and selfhood, and forces philosophers to rethink how our personal identify is formed and interpreted in relation to society. Ethnic and cultural aspects of personal identity and their implications for pressing issue in democratic justice will be studied. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: SRVL.

PHIL 4301. HAPPINESS AND WELL-BEING. (4 Credits)

An investigation into the nature and value of happiness and well-being (understood as connected concepts) from the perspective of both psychology and philosophy. Emphasis will be placed on research about the topic in each discipline, but efforts will also be made to explore fruitful interactions between the two disciplines in understanding the topic. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: ICC.

PHIL 4302. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY & ETHICS. (4 Credits)

This seminar is designed primarily for philosophy, environmental studies and natural science majors and presuppose substantial previous course work in one or more of these disciplines. Using these disciplines, the ethical dimensions of environmental problems will be explored from an interdisciplinary perspective. Requirements include a 40 page essay blog, three class presentations, and a hands-on learning practicum outside of class (minimum 1 hr per week). Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, ENST, EP3, ICC.

PHIL 4303. HUMAN ERROR: PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES. (4 Credits)

This course takes error in human judgment and reasoning as its central topic. Human error is something we know about firsthand: we all make mistakes. That's a platitude, but in this course we will try to say more. Through reading and discussion of classic and recent work by philosophers and psychologists, we'll think carefully about error and the significance of error for our intellectual lives. What factors lead us to err? What kinds of mistakes are there to make? What's the reasonable response to learning that we may have make an error? What can be done to get things right more often? Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: ICC.

PHIL 4304. THE PHILOSOPHY AND ECONOMICS OF LAW (Interdisciplinary Capstone Core). (4 Credits)

This course examines the different ways in which philosophers and economists think about the law, with a focus on property, tort, contract, and criminal law. Readings are both historical and contemporary. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: ICC.

PHIL 4305. THE CITY AS TEXT: MODERNITY AND MODERISM IN LONDON. (4 Credits)

This course examines the relationship between theoretical ideas of modernity and the literature and art criticism of modernism, with London as its cultural geography. Philosophical descriptions of modernity and theories of Marx, Darwin and Freud serve as a basis for understanding transformations in human self-understanding that characterize the mid 19th to early 20th centuries. We examine modern literary works influenced by these transformations, all written and set in London, by Dickens, Kipling, Rhys, Woolf, Eliot, Yeats, and the modernist art critics Fry and Hulme. Interconnections between theory, literature, and art are emphasized through readings and excursions in the city. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 4310. HUMAN RIGHTS IN CONTEXT. (4 Credits)

Human rights have become a universal language of protest. When and how did this happen? What are human rights and how are they justified? Do they mean the same thing in all the contexts in which they are invoked around the world? To address such questions we focus on how different methodologies – mainly historical, philosophical, and ethnographic – produce knowledge about human rights. For instance, what can we learn by identifying historical continuities and discontinuities between different conceptions of rights? What can we learn about human rights from the kind of conceptual analysis that many philosophers do? How can the “thick description” of ethnography help us understand the meaning and effects of human rights discourse in various settings? Finally, can historical, philosophical, and ethnographic approaches to human rights be fruitfully combined? Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: ICC.

Prerequisite: PHIL 3000.

PHIL 4407. GENDER, POWER, AND JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

The seminar examines the impact of gender norms, roles and assumptions on the moral structure of social life. The seminar will draw on the extensive materials available from feminist theory of ethics, law, and society; the developing body of work on the cultural construction of masculinity, and its moral and social impacts; and new interest in gender differences and women's welfare in global context. The subject cannot fail to be fundamental to student's personal experiences of social and political life. especially as they make the transition from college years to the workplace or to professional training. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, EP4, VAL, WGSS.

PHIL 4408. HOSPITALITY AND COSMOPOLITANISM. (4 Credits)

This course examines contemporary approaches to hospitality as it relates to "otherness" and cosmopolitanism. Issues addressed include personal and political forgiveness, representations of cultural and racial "others" in media and literature, and the relation between the search for identity and openness to foreigners. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, OCST, VAL.

PHIL 4409. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: ENST, EP4, VAL.

PHIL 4410. LOVE AND EMPIRE. (4 Credits)

Previously PHIL 3510. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: CLAS, EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4412. CLASSICAL VALUES: ART OF LIVING. (4 Credits)

This course considers the art of living a human life, focusing on classical values including poetry and philosophy, with special attention to the Stoic conception of the cultivation or care of the self. Readings include Homer and Pindar as well as Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius and commentaries ranging from Nietzsche and Foucault to Pierre Hadot, Alasdaur MacIntyre, and Alexander Nehamas. Previously PHIL 3512. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: CLAS, EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4413. RELIGION AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the religious life in terms of the question, What does it mean to be religious? The seminar will then study differing views of the relation of the religious to the moral life, personal and social, including the formation of conscience and moral judgment, from writers such as Augustine, Kierkegaard, Kant, Levinas and Marx. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: SRVL.

PHIL 4416. ART, MORALITY, AND POLITICS. (4 Credits)

The seminar explores the inter-relationship among artistic, moral and political values. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, COLI, EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4418. ISSUES OF LIFE AND DEATH. (4 Credits)

The objective of this course is to make students aware of several issues in biology and medicine that require moral reflection, judgment, or decision, while also indicating how justified moral conclusions are reached. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMCS, AMST, BIOE, EP4, REST, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4422. HARRY POTTER AND PHILOSOPHY (ICC). (4 Credits)

This course will use the Harry Potter novels to explore several central themes in philosophy, and will use philosophical analysis to interpret the books and their cultural impact. Some central topics of the course will include: the nature and relationships of minds, souls, and bodies; the conflict of good and evil and some related issues in moral psychology and the ethics of ‘love’; metaphysical implications of the magical world of HP and its enchantment of muggles. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attribute: ICC.

PHIL 4423. BUSINESS ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Business ethics is the study of moral values and conduct in business institutional contexts. The seminar will combine study of ethical theories with analysis of case studies involving real-world ethical issues that managers, employees, firms and other business stakeholders are dealing with today and that members of the class may face in the future. Previously PHIL 3123. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, PJST, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4425. BUDDHIST MORAL THOUGHT. (4 Credits)

This course focuses on Buddhist ethical thought and practice, as well as interpretations and developments of this from Western perspectives. We will discuss topics such as karma, happiness, enlightenment (nirvana), meditation and moral development, emotions such as compassion and anger, as well as free will, responsibility, and determinism. We will also examine practical issues such as human rights, environmental ethics, and war and violence. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, INST, VAL.

PHIL 4430. EDUCATION AND DEMOCRACY. (4 Credits)

In this seminar we will investigate the relationship between education and democracy. In what ways does democracy depend on education? Do some educational practices promote democratic values better than others? Should education be in the service of politics at all? We will examine answers to these questions and others found in a number of different philosophical traditions, reading the work of authors such as John Dewey, Paolo Friere, bell hooks, Martha Nassbaum, and Jacques Ranciere. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, VAL.

PHIL 4442. FANTASY AND PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

An interdisciplinary study of moral themes in J.R.R. Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings." The course focuses on Tolkien's artistic treatment of such philosophical questions as the lure of power, good and evil, freedom and fate, the nature of the divine, the natural environment and the function of literature in human life. We may consider similar themes in the works of other prominent fantasy authors. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4444. AI, SCI FI, AND HUMAN VALUE. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: COMC, COMM, EP4, VAL.

Prerequisite: PHIL 3000.

PHIL 4455. RESPECTFUL DISAGREEMENT. (4 Credits)

This seminar concerns a problem that has broad practical implications, concerns how we should conduct our intellectual lives, and is of great interest in philosophy: what should we do when we find out that someone we consider just as intelligent and informed as we are on a certain topic disagrees with us on that topic? If we stick with our ipinion are we being arrogant? If we give up our old belief are we considered spineless? We all hold opinions we know are denied by people we consider our peers or even superiors on the relevant topic, whether it's religious, political, or specific to our favorite fields of study. This seminar examines this common situation. Previously PHIL 3255. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4469. SEX, LOVE, AND THE VIRTUES. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, VAL.

PHIL 4470. LINCOLN: DEMOCRATIC VALUES. (4 Credits)

This senior seminar will survey key themes in American political philosophy from the Federalist Papers to the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, focusing on rival conceptions of the moral conditions that must be met for democratic government to count as legitimate, or capable of making law that deserves our principled allegiance. Using famous texts by Henry Jaffa and Gary Wills, we will consider the relation between popular sovereignty and human rights; the balance between personal conscience and constitutional order; and arguments for greater centralization of power for essential coordination and to secure basic justice. We will reconstruct this ideal of democratic justice from the tradition of ‘civic republicanism’ as it developed in the Federalist and Whig parties up to 1860. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, PJST, VAL.

PHIL 4473. WAR AND PEACE: JUST WAR THEORY. (4 Credits)

This seminar in applied ethics will examine the history and development of just war doctrine with special attention given to its medieval and classical theorists, e.g., Augustine, Aquinas, Vitoria, Suarez and Grotius. Students will debate the central questions just war theory was developed to address: what war is, whether war may be waged, and if so under what circumstances and in what ways. Before investigating just war theory, students will examine two rival ethical theories about war, namely, pacificism and realism. The closing weeks of the semester will focus on current issues and challenges for just war doctrine, especially pre-emptive war, terrorism, and counter-insurgency. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, MVST, REST, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4480. TECHNOLOGY AND VALUES. (4 Credits)

This senior values seminar examines the challenge that modern technology presents to our traditional ethical standpoints and, ultimately, to the very idea of an ethical culture insofar as modern technology has shifted from merely serving the culture to shaping the culture in fundamental ways regarding the measure of our humanity. Previously PHIL 3180. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4484. FREEDOM AND RESPONSIBILITY. (4 Credits)

The course will investigate several problems concerning freedom, responsibility and the morality of punishment. Is freedom possible in a world completely governed by physical laws? How can I be blamed (or praised) for my actions, given that upbringing, character, and environment are largely matters of luck? Is the practice of punishing criminals morally justifiable? How? Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: BIOE, EP4, VAL.

PHIL 4486. EVIL, VICE, AND SIN. (4 Credits)

This senior values seminar takes a negative strategy in approaching moral questions by focusing on actions labeled "evil", "vicious", "sinful" in order to create an opportunity for reflecting on the reality and experience of evil from which we might evolve some positive conception of "value" as well as the context and nature of moral choice and conscience. Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

Attributes: AMST, EP4, SRVL, VAL.

PHIL 4800. INTERNSHIP. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 4990. SENIOR THESIS: PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Four-credit courses that meet for 150 minutes per week require three additional hours of class preparation per week on the part of the student in lieu of an additional hour of formal instruction.

PHIL 4999. INDEPENDENT STUDY. (1-4 Credits)

Supervised individual study project.